Main Article Content


Melting point of HMX, RDX, TNT and PETN are measured for judging crystal purity. The heating rate when doing this has a significant effect on the melting point reading. This work gives an insight on how heating rate affects the melting point reading for these high explosives using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). With increase in heating rates (from 1 to 20°C min-1) the different behaviours of the DSC curves for HMX, RDX, TNT and PETN are analysed. It is also observed from this study that heating rate causes a shift in the temperatures for onset and the peak for HMX, RDX, TNT and PETN. This study reflects that in some cases the decomposition of the explosives is influencing the melting graphs. Hence a conclusion has been drawn on the adequate heating rate that should be chosen for determining the melting point of these high explosives.


HMX, RDX, TNT, PETN, Heating Rate, DSC, Melting Point

Article Details

How to Cite
Das, R., & Trivedi, N. S. (2024). Effect of Heating Rate on Melting Point of HMX, RDX, TNT and PETN. Journal of Aerospace Sciences and Technologies, 76(1), 13–18.


  1. Pinheiro, G. F. M., Loureno, V. L. and Iha, K., "Influence of The Heating Rate in the Thermal Decomposition of HMX", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol.67, 2002, pp.445-452.
  2. Miles, K. K., "The Thermal Decomposition", Naval Postgraduate School, March 1972.
  3. Robetson, A. J. B., "The Decomposition, Boiling and Explosion of Trinitrotoluene at High Temperatures", Transactions of Faraday Society, Vol.44, 1948, pp.977-983.
  4. Reddy, G. O. and Rao, A. S., "Stability Studies on Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate", Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, Vol.17, 1992, pp.307-312.
  5. Piekiel, N. W., Cavicchi, R. E. and Zachariah, M. R., "Rapid-heating pf Energetic Material Using a Micro-differential Scanning Calorimeter", Vol.521, pp.125-129.
  6. Trivedi, N. S., Das, R., Sjoberg, P. and Westerlund, M., "Calibration of HPLC for HMX and RDX Purity Determination", 12th International High Energy Materials Conference & Exhibits, HEMCE-2019, 16-18 December 2019 at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.
  7. HMX, US Millitary Std, MIL-DTL-45444.
  8. RDX US Millitary Std, MIL-DTL-398 D.
  9. TNT US Millitary Std, MIL-DTL-4298 D.
  10. PETN US Millitary Std, MIL-P-387 C.
  11. JSS 1376-04-2016.
  12. Myint, P. C. and Nichols, A. L., Thermodynamics of HMX polymorphs and HMX/RDX mistures.
  13. Vikram Kestens., Gert Roebben and Thomas Linsinger., "Development and Validation of a Differential Scanning Calorimetry Purity Determination Method for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", Accred Qual Assur, 2010, 15:269-281.