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DC-DC converter is an important electronic component in any aerospace system employed in many sub-systems. Hybrid technology based DC-DC Converters provide compactness, better reliability and performance compared to standard SMT converters. Technology advancements leads to miniaturization of the module and poses technical challenges due to involvement of huge numbers of die components, transformers, inductors, capacitors and other challenges associated with combination of multiple process and critical fabrication technology involved for hybrid realization of aconverter. Various other challenges due to compactness achieved through hybridization in various domain such as layout, managing thermal aspects of components, package selection, testing and reliability additionally brings many constraints in the realization. Layout design poses several constraints to achieve desired electrical and thermal performance meeting various design guidelines apart from reliability criteria towards realizing a compact, reliable and reproducible product. This article details the special fabrication techniques adopted for miniaturization of hybrid converters andvariousfabrication as well as process challenges encountered apart from effective methodologies adopted to mitigate various stresses resulting in thereproducible production. Details of special subassemblies, attachment techniques and their impact in realization are presented. Techniques and procedures to mitigate the challenges resulted in the qualification of the product are also presented in this article.


Hybrid Microcircuit (HMC), DC-DC Converter, Subassembly, Interconnect

Article Details

Author Biography

Kamaljeet Singh, HMC Group UR Rao Satellite Centre ISRO, HAL Airport Road Bangalore-560 017

How to Cite
Singh, A., R., S., Andhiwal, A., Singh, K., & Sudhakar, S. (2023). Hybridization Challenges and Mitigating Techniques for The Realization of Reliable DC-DC Converter HMCS for Aerospace Applications. Journal of Aerospace Sciences and Technologies, 75(4), 403–414. Retrieved from


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